You need to learn how to reference accurately in order to acknowledge your sources and to demonstrate that your writing is based on evidence. There are two parts to referencing:
Different styles of referencing use different formats for both in-text citations and reference lists. You need to learn which referencing style is used by your subject area - this will be the style included in the 'How to reference' tab of your subject libguide. The next tab in this box ('Which referencing style?') gives guidance on which style is used for each School.
A frequently used referencing style is Harvard. At Teesside University, the Harvard style is taken from Cite them Right.
If you follow the appropriate guidance in Cite them Right, your referencing will be correct.
MIMA School of Art & Design
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Teesside University Business School
The book 'Cite Them Right' by Pears and Shields details the Harvard referencing standard used by Teesside University.
Click here for the online version of
Click on the book image below for location details of paper copies in the Library.
Harvard is an author-date referencing style. This means that in the text of your work, you just need to include the author's surname (family name), the year, and page number if you are referring to a specific page or pages e.g. (Godwin, 2014, p. 15). This is called an in-text citation.
This format is the same regardless of whether the source is a book, journal article or website.
If there isn't an individual author, you may need to use an organisation instead - this frequently occurs with websites, e.g. (BBC, 2015).
For four or more authors, you should use the first named author, followed by et al.
There are two styles of in-text citation - each style has advantages and disadvantages:
1. the author is part of the sentence, so the year goes into brackets, e.g. "Norman (2012) states that ..."
2. the author is not part of the sentence so both the author's name and the year go in brackets at the end of the sentence, e.g. (Norman, 2012).
Paraphrasing means putting an author's writing into your own words, without changing the meaning.
You need to paraphrase within academic writing to demonstrate to your lecturer that you understand the material.
Paraphrasing also allows you to summarise the evidence so that it fits in with the case you are making, and improves the flow of your assignment.
In academic writing, your lecturers will want you to limit the number and length of quotations you use, restricting them to key phrases. Instead, you should develop your skills in paraphrasing.
Remember you still need to reference any material you have paraphrased.
There is a temptation when you find one author quoting (or citing) another to just lift the quote and use it:
Imagine you’ve read a book by Chalmers (1999) and on page 141 it cites a piece of work by Worrall (1985) and has the full reference to it in the reference list.
You too would also like to refer to the work done by Worrall, but cannot locate his original work, only the reference to it in Chalmers.
The solution, in the text of your work, cite the original author ‘cited in’ then the author of the work you have read. BUT in your reference list only reference the work you have read – do not mention the original at all.
So our example would read as follows.
(Worrall, 1985, cited in Chalmers, 1999, p. 141)
•In the reference list
Chalmers, A.F. (1999) What is this thing called science? Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Your reference list should be presented in one list in alphabetical author order, regardless of whether the reference is to a book, journal article, website or any other kind of source.
If there is no author, the item should come under the title (in italics).
The list should Include everything referred to in the text of your work.
References need to be:
There are many tools available to help you with referencing. At Teesside, we support RefWorks which enables you to create and manage your own personal database of useful references. You can then use these to quickly compile a reference list .
Whichever tool you use, you'll need to adjust your references to make sure that they fit in with the appropriate style required for your subject, for example as Harvard Style outlined in Cite them Right.
You can also use Turnitin as a tool to help you prevent plagiarism in your writing. It is available from Blackboard - see the link to 'Check your work for plagiarism'.
You can improve your referencing in a number of ways through the Learning Hub.
Improve your skills in using references in your writing.
Come to the workshop to learn how to use in-text citations, paraphrase and quote correctly in your assignments. The session will cover how to :
This workshop does not cover the practicalities of creating a reference or advice on how to structure your references.
For more details on how to create and structure a reference - see the online tutorial below - Harvard Referencing section.
Alternatively consult 'Cite them Right' which gives examples of how to layout references for many different types of resources.
How to use references: workshop materials:
Recording from Collaborate session: How to use references (Recorded 9 April 2020 and also covers content of workshop on 14 April 2020)
Feedback form for workshop
If you cannot view the online tutorial below, go to the following web page. When you've viewed the basics section there, click back to this page and select the 'In-text' tab above.
Welcome to this referencing tutorial. You can either work through it in order or skip to the section you want:
If you cannot view the online tutorial below, go to the following web page. When you've viewed the in-text citations section there, click back to this page and select the 'Paraphrasing' tab above.
Pears and Shields (2019, p. 20) or (Pears and Shields, 2019, p. 20)
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2019) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 11th edn. London: Red Globe Press.
(Young et al., 2015, p. 46) or Young et al. (2015, p. 46)
Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Semansky's university physics. 10th edn. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.
(Macmillan and Crelman,1991, cited in Wickens, 2002, p. 37)
Wickens, T.D. (2002) Elementary signal detection theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press
An ebook that includes all the same elements as the print version e.g. page numbers, edition, publication details, should be referenced as though it was a print book.
If the ebook is available on an edevice (Kindle, smartphones and tablets) the elements might not be the same as the print version. If this is the case you need to use the information you do have e.g. loc or %
(Adams, 1979, loc 876) or Adams (1979, loc 876)
Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Downloaded: 28 August 2013).
(Parton and Fleming, 2008) or Parton and Fleming (2008)
Parton, S. and Fleming, H. (2008) 'Academic libraries and learning support in collaboration', New Review of Academic Librarianship, 13(1), pp. 79-89.
(Norrie et al., 2012) or Norrie et al. (2012)
Norrie, C. et al. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565-578.
BBC (2018) or (BBC, 2018)
BBC (2018) News. Available at:
(Accessed: 14 May 2018).