If you cannot view the online tutorial below, go to the following web page. When you've viewed the basics section there, click back to this page and select the 'In-text' tab above.
If you cannot view the online tutorial below, go to the following web page. When you've viewed the in-text citations section there, click back to this page and select the 'Paraphrasing' tab above.
You need to learn how to reference accurately in order to acknowledge your sources and to demonstrate that your writing is based on evidence. There are two parts to referencing:
Different styles of referencing use different formats for both in-text citations and reference lists. You need to learn which referencing style is used by your subject area - this will be the style included in the 'How to reference' tab of your subject libguide.
The most frequently used referencing style is Harvard. At Teesside, the Harvard style is taken from Cite them Right. If you follow the guidance in Cite them Right, your referencing will be correct.
Harvard is an author-date referencing style. This means that in-text, you just need to include the author's surname, the year, and page number if you are referring to a specific page (eg (Godwin, 2014, p.15)
This format is the same regardless of whether the source is a book, journal article or website.
If there isn't an individual author, you may need to use an organisation instead - this frequently occurs with websites eg (BBC, 2015).
For more than three authors, you should use the first author's name, followed by et al.
There are two styles of in-text citation - each style has advantages and disadvantages:
1.the author is part of the sentence, so the year goes into brackets "Godwin (2014) states that ..."
2. the author is not part of the sentence so both the author's name and the year go in brackets
Paraphrasing means putting an author's writing into your own words, without changing the meaning. You need to paraphrase within academic writing to demonstrate to your lecturer that you understand the material. Paraphrasing also allows you to summarise the evidence so that it fits in with the case you are making, and improves the flow of your assignment.
In academic writing, your lecturers will want you to limit the number and length of quotations you use, restricting them to key phrases. Instead, you should develop your skills in paraphrasing.
There is a temptation when you find one author quoting (or citing) another to just lift the quote and use it:
Imagine you’ve read a book by Chalmers (1999) and on page 141 it cites a piece of work by Worrall (1985) and has the full reference to it in the reference list.
You too would also like to refer to the work done by Worrall, but cannot locate his original work, only the reference to it in Chalmers.
The solution, in the text of your work, cite the original author ‘cited in’ then the author of the work you have read. BUT in your reference list only reference the work you have read – do not mention the original at all.
So our example would read as follows.
(Worrall, 1985, cited in Chalmers, 1999, p. 141)
•In the reference list
Chalmers, A.F. (1999) What is this thing called science? Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Your reference list should be presented in one list in alphabetical author order, regardless of whether the reference is to a book, journal article, website or any other kind of source. If there is no author, the item should come under the title (in italics). Includes everything referred to in the text
References need to be:
School of Computing, Media & the Arts
School of Health & Social Care
School of Science, Engineering & Design
School of Social Sciences, Humanities & Law
Teesside University Business School
There are many tools available to help you with referencing. At Teesside, we support RefWorks which enables you to create and manage your own personal database of useful references. You can then use these to quickly compile a reference list .
Whichever tool you use, you'll need to adjust your references to make sure that they fit in with your appropriate style, for example with Cite them Right for Harvard.
You can also use Turnitin as a tool to help you prevent plagiarism in your writing. It is available from Blackboard - see the link to 'Check your work for plagiarism'.
Pears and Shields (2016, p. 20) or (Pears and Shields, 2016, p. 20)
Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2016) Cite them right. 10th edn. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
(Young et al., 2015, p. 46) or Young et al. (2015, p. 46)
Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Semansky's university physics. 10th edn. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.
(Macmillan and Crelman,1991, cited in Wickens, 2002, p. 37)
Wickens, T.D. (2002) Elementary signal detection theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press
An ebook that includes all the same elements as the print version e.g. page numbers, edition, publication details, should be referenced as though it was a print book.
If the ebook is available on an edevice (Kindle, smartphones and tablets) the elements might not be the same as the print version. If this is the case you need to use the information you do have e.g. loc or %
(Adams, 1979, loc 876) or Adams (1979, loc 876)
Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy. Available at: http://www.amazon.co.uk/kindle-ebooks (Downloaded: 28 August 2013).
(Parton and Fleming, 2008) or Parton and Fleming (2008)
Parton, S. and Fleming, H. (2008) 'Academic libraries and learning support in collaboration', New Review of Academic Librarianship, 13(1), pp. 79-89.
(Norrie et al., 2012) or Norrie et al. (2012)
Norrie, C. et al. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565-578.
BBC (2018) or (BBC, 2018)
BBC (2018) News. Available at:
(Accessed: 14 May 2018).