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Operating Department

How to Reference

Harvard Referencing

The referencing style used in the School of Health and Life Sciences at Teesside University is Harvard Standard according to the book 'Cite Them Right' by Pears and Shields.

Click on the book cover below for details of the print copies held in the Library, or select the link for the electronic copy.

As well as the skills guide dedicated to referencing, with an online tutorial and various help sheets, we have an Adobe visual guide which you might find useful too.

Skills guide with tutorial

Link to LibGuide on referencing online tutorial

Adobe visual guide

Link to online visual Spark guide on referencing

Referencing examples

How to reference a bookpile of books

Books with up to 3 authors:
In-text citation

Pears and Shields (2022, p. 20) or (Pears and Shields, 2022, p. 20)

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2022) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 12th edn. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Books with 4 or more authors:
In-text citation

(Young et al., 2015, p. 46) or Young et al. (2015, p. 46)

Reference list

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Semansky's university physics. 10th edn. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.

Secondary Referencing
In-text citation

(Macmillan and Crelman,1991, cited in Wickens, 2002, p. 37)

Reference list

Wickens, T.D. (2002) Elementary signal detection theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press


An ebook that includes all the same elements as the print version e.g. page numbers, edition, publication details, should be referenced as though it was a print book.

Ebooks available on an edevice e.g. Kindle

If the ebook is available on an edevice (Kindle, smartphones and tablets) the elements might not be the same as the print version.  If this is the case you need to use the information you do have e.g. loc or %

In-text citation

(Adams, 1979, loc 876) or Adams (1979, loc 876)

Reference list

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy. Available at: (Downloaded: 28 August 2013).

How to reference a journal article journals

Journal articles with up to 3 authors (applies to paper and electronic versions)
In-text citation

(Parton and Fleming, 2008) or Parton and Fleming (2008)

Reference list

Parton, S. and Fleming, H. (2008) 'Academic libraries and learning support in collaboration', New Review of Academic Librarianship, 13(1), pp. 79-89. Available at:

Journal articles with 4 or more authors (applies to both paper and electronic formats - for instance this article is electronic and includes a doi * see below for information on doi's).
In-text citation

(Norrie et al., 2012) or Norrie et al. (2012)

Reference list

Norrie, C. et al. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565-578. Available at: 

How to Reference an electronic journal article with doi

In-text citation

Barke, Mowl and Shield's study (2010) ....

Reference list

Barke, M., Mowl, S. and Shields, G. (2010) 'Malaga - a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History, 2(3), pp. 187-212. Available at:

* a doi (Digital Object Identifier) is used to identify individual digital (online) sources, such as journal articles and conference papers. No accessed date is needed.


How to Reference an electronic journal article with URL

In-text citation

An example cited by Dutta and Marjit (2016, p. 120).

Reference list

Dutta, M. and Marjit, S. (2016) 'Intra-country technology transfer', Indian Ecomonic Review, 51(1/2), new series, pp. 117-127. Available at: (Accessed: 27 May 2021). 

How to reference a website social media logos

In-text citation

BBC (2018) or (BBC, 2018)

Reference list

BBC (2018) News. Available at: 

(Accessed: 14 May 2018).

How to reference an Act of Parliament (for UK after 1963)


Whole act:
In-text citation
(Wild Animals in Circuses Act 2019)
Reference list

Wild Animals in Circuses Act 2019, c. 24. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2023).


Section of an Act:

In-text citation

As outlined in section 20(2) of the Act (Children and Families Act 2014)....

Reference List

Children and Families Act 2014, c. 6. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2023).



Finding the DOI

If you want to reference a journal article you will need to include the DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL. There are a number of places the DOI can be found. View the following guide for examples. 


To login to RefWorks click on the RefWorks image below:

Login to RefWorks

RefWorks allows you to create and manage your own personal database of useful references. You can then use these to quickly compile a reference list or bibliography for your assignments. 

Click on the link below for more information, and help on using Refworks.

Tutorials for support with referencing


In this type of tutorial you can get support with:

  • Referencing
  • In-text citations
  • RefWorks

If you would like support with EndNote, please see

Use the link or button below to book a tutorial for support with referencingThe tutorial can be via email, Microsoft Teams, or via a face-to-face appointment at Middlesbrough campus (please check the directions section in the booking form to see if face-to-face is available for your chosen time). Please indicate on the form what type of appointment you would prefer.

Before booking a tutorial, please ensure you have looked at the relevant online support materials available here: 

To book a tutorial click on this link or click on the button below.

During the tutorial we could look at:

  • A reference list which has some feedback from a tutor
  • A new reference list you are working on
  • Some referencing examples you need help with
  • Citations within your assignment

It is important to note that we will only help with a sample of references or citations. We won't check or correct a full reference list or a whole assignment for citations.