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Teesside University London eLibrary services

Why reference?

Harvard Referencing

If a sentence does not have a reference, the reader assumes that all the work here, including ideas, theories, evidence, argument etc... is yours and yours alone. If you paraphrase, summarise or copy a source but don't cite and reference, you are plagiarising. 

The referencing style used at Teesside University is Harvard Standard according to the guidance in 'Cite them Right'.

If you need help with your referencing please use Cite Them Right.  This excellent resource can tell you how to correctly cite and reference any information source in the correct style, some examples are listed below. 

For a more in-depth introduction to referencing, please check out our How to Reference guide

Harvard - Cite Them Right referencing examples

How to reference a bookpile of books

Books with up to 3 authors:
In-text citation

Pears and Shields (2022, p. 20) or (Pears and Shields, 2022, p. 20)

Reference list

Pears, R. and Shields, G. (2022) Cite them right: the essential referencing guide. 12th edn. London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Books with 4 or more authors:
In-text citation

(Young et al., 2015, p. 46) or Young et al. (2015, p. 46)

Reference list

Young, H.D. et al. (2015) Sears and Semansky's university physics. 10th edn. San Francisco: Addison-Wesley.

Secondary Referencing
In-text citation

(Macmillan and Crelman,1991, cited in Wickens, 2002, p. 37)

Reference list

Wickens, T.D. (2002) Elementary signal detection theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press


An ebook that includes all the same elements as the print version e.g. page numbers, edition, publication details, should be referenced as though it was a print book.

Ebooks available on an edevice e.g. Kindle

If the ebook is available on an edevice (Kindle, smartphones and tablets) the elements might not be the same as the print version.  If this is the case you need to use the information you do have e.g. loc or %

In-text citation

(Adams, 1979, loc 876) or Adams (1979, loc 876)

Reference list

Adams, D. (1979) The hitchhiker's guide to the galaxy. Available at: (Downloaded: 28 August 2013).

How to reference a journal article journals

Journal articles with up to 3 authors (applies to paper and electronic versions)
In-text citation

(Parton and Fleming, 2008) or Parton and Fleming (2008)

Reference list

Parton, S. and Fleming, H. (2008) 'Academic libraries and learning support in collaboration', New Review of Academic Librarianship, 13(1), pp. 79-89. Available at:

Journal articles with 4 or more authors (applies to both paper and electronic formats - for instance this article is electronic and includes a doi * see below for information on doi's).
In-text citation

(Norrie et al., 2012) or Norrie et al. (2012)

Reference list

Norrie, C. et al. (2012) 'Doing it differently? A review of literature on teaching reflective practice across health and social care professions', Reflective Practice, 13(4), pp. 565-578. Available at: 

How to Reference an electronic journal article with doi

In-text citation

Barke, Mowl and Shield's study (2010) ....

Reference list

Barke, M., Mowl, S. and Shields, G. (2010) 'Malaga - a failed resort of the early twentieth century?', Journal of Tourism History, 2(3), pp. 187-212. Available at:

* a doi (Digital Object Identifier) is used to identify individual digital (online) sources, such as journal articles and conference papers. No accessed date is needed.


How to Reference an electronic journal article with URL

In-text citation

An example cited by Dutta and Marjit (2016, p. 120).

Reference list

Dutta, M. and Marjit, S. (2016) 'Intra-country technology transfer', Indian Ecomonic Review, 51(1/2), new series, pp. 117-127. Available at: (Accessed: 27 May 2021). 

How to reference a website social media logos

In-text citation

BBC (2018) or (BBC, 2018)

Reference list

BBC (2018) News. Available at: 

(Accessed: 14 May 2018).

How to reference an Act of Parliament (for UK after 1963)


Whole act:
In-text citation
(Wild Animals in Circuses Act 2019)
Reference list

Wild Animals in Circuses Act 2019, c. 24. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2023).


Section of an Act:

In-text citation

As outlined in section 20(2) of the Act (Children and Families Act 2014)....

Reference List

Children and Families Act 2014, c. 6. Available at: (Accessed: 23 November 2023).



Reference examples for Computer Games and Animation

Website / webpage

Website example


Blog example


Film example

Computer game

Computer game example

Computer program

Computer program example

GDC Vault

GDC Vault example


To login to RefWorks click on the RefWorks image below:

Login to RefWorks

RefWorks allows you to create and manage your own personal database of useful references. You can then use these to quickly compile a reference list or bibliography for your assignments. 

Click on the link below for more information, and help on using Refworks.

What is academic misconduct?

academic misconduct wordcloud


Academic misconduct is defined by the University as:

"Any activity or attempted activity which gives an unfair advantage to one or more students over their peers"

(Taken from the Essential information for students on University regulations for academic year 2020/2021, p.1)

It is treated very seriously by the University.

If you are found to have acted in this way you may receive a penalty, the most serious being exclusion from the University. Therefore it is best to take steps to avoid it in the first place.

We are here to help and support you and develop your skills to avoid accusations of academic misconduct.

Remember these rules are also there to protect your rights as well as providing sanctions for misconduct.

Make sure you are aware of all the student regulations

To see the full set of student regulations go to:



There are many different types of academic misconduct, including collusion and plagiarism.  See below for some examples (taken from the Academic Misconduct Regulations).


Collusion and Plagiarism

Group work is a legitimate form of study that you may be asked to engage with for an assignment.

For more advice on group work see


Collusion is where two or more students collaborate (or work together) to produce a piece of work. They then submit this piece of work as their own work. 

The original creator of the work may also be liable to the charge of academic misconduct if it is shown that they knowingly allowed their work to be used or shared.

In group work where the originator cannot be established the entire group may be deemed responsible to the charge of academic misconduct.

Tips for avoiding collusion:

  • Don't loan your work to other students.
  • Don't borrow work from current or previous students.

Plagiarism is the incorporation of someone else's work into your own work without proper acknowledgement of that source  in your work.

Academic work must be well-researched and evidence based. This evidence should be from academic / expert sources.

This includes not only text from articles and books or web-pages, but also lecture notes, images, programming codes, diagrams, tables etc. 

It is the 'idea' that counts and which you need to acknowledge or credit.

If you paraphrase from a source (that is put someones' ideas into your own words) you still need to acknowledge that source.

It is also important when paraphrasing that you do not change the meaning of the original.


Self-plagiarism is duplicating and submitting work which is the same (or partly) identical to work you have submitted in the past.

Tips for avoiding plagiarism

  • Make sure you know how to reference properly for your subject area. 
  • Avoid copying and pasting text especially from electronic sources. It is not good practice to copy and paste sections of information, even if it is correctly referenced. This could result in you not having enough word count left in your assignment for your own analysis and commentary.
  • Keep a record of where you have taken notes or quotations from.
  • Get advice from your tutor or academic librarian to make sure you are referencing correctly.
  • Don't submit the same work for different assessments.

Other examples of academic misconduct

Bribery or blackmail is offering money or any other incentives to somebody or coercing another to gain an unfair advanage. 

This is engaging in actions with the intention of gaining an unfair advantage over others taking the same examination, or knowingly assisting others to do this. 

Presenting false data that you have claimed to have carried out, or to deliberately mislead others. This includes manipulating and omission of genuine data or tampering with or adding to data.

This is falsely submitting a case for an extension, deferred submission of for extenuating circumstances in order to gain an unfair advantage.

Interfering with recorded marks to gain an unfair advantage.

This is the submission of work, originally by another person but which has been deliberately modified to make it look like your own piece of work.

Assuming the identity of another person with the intention to deceive or gain an unfair advantage. This can exist where a person assumes the identity with the intention of gaining an advantage for that student or that student is knowingly and willingly impersonated by another.

This is purchasing or commissioning a piece of work from another party which you then pass off as your own work. This includes work purchased from commercial internet assignment writing sites, other organisations or individuals. Please note that offering this service is now considered an illegal practice. (

Also please note that completing work for someone else who then submits this as their own work (even if it is at a different institution) is also considered an offence.

Sabotage is the act of deliberately destroying, damaging or obstructing the work of others.

This also includes deliberately stalling the progress of another's work to gain a personal advantage.

This is the stealing of another student's work.

This is the possession of confidential staff material relating to an assessment which has been obtained without their consent and would give you an unfair advantage.

This involves conduct which deviates from acceptable behaviour.

The  full-list is available in Appendix 1 of the Academic Misconduct Regulations.